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ASJ系列剩余电流继电器在施工现场用电设备安装中的应用

BET365 王冲

摘要:保护漏电设备的作用主要就是避免直接或者是间接的接触到通电设备,这也是安全通电的必要举措。就建筑工地用电的基本要求来说,探讨了施工地的保护漏电设备在投入使用中面临的问题,同时进行提升,这样能够有效地减少事故的出现,也是保障施工中用电通畅的必然要求。

Abstract: The main function of protecting leakage equipment is to avoid direct or indirect contact with energized equipment, which is also a necessary measure for safe energization. As far as the basic requirements for electricity use on construction sites are concerned, the problems faced by the leakage protection equipment of the construction site when put into use are discussed, and improvements are made at the same time. This can effectively reduce the occurrence of accidents and is also an inevitable requirement for ensuring the smooth use of electricity during construction.

关键词:漏电保护;建筑工地;电气安全

Keywords: leakage protection; construction site; electrical safety 

0:概述 Overview

  施工地是使用强制性的装置保护漏电设备,目的就是确保施工地供电安全。在正常的施工中,由于施工现场特殊,经常会使漏电保护装置跳闸,在阻碍施工进程的同时还危害了施工现场的安全。将施工地的实际情况和用电情况相结合,概括出在施工地保护漏电设备时常跳闸的现象,并且给予了保护漏电设备的日常保护措施。

The construction site is to use compulsory devices to protect the leakage equipment, the purpose is to ensure the safety of power supply at the construction site. In normal construction, due to the special construction site, the leakage protection device is often tripped, which not only hinders the construction process, but also endangers the safety of the construction site. Combining the actual situation of the construction site with the electricity usage, the phenomenon of frequent tripping of the leakage protection equipment at the construction site is summarized, and daily protective measures to protect the leakage equipment are given.

  保护漏电设备的主要作用就是通电设备在出现漏电的情况或者是在人体触电的时候出现致命危险的过程进行相应的保护,其设备主要由开关、实验按键、脱口装置,脱口整体结构、剩余电流互感器等几个部件组成。进行保护设施在接地的故障电流是介于保护漏电设备漏电的脱口设备上,并且超出预定数值时,主开关会自动跳闸,出现故障的电流被切断,在一定程度上起到了保护的作用。

The main function of the protection of leakage equipment is to protect the energized equipment in the process of leakage or fatal danger when the human body gets an electric shock. The equipment is mainly composed of switches, experimental buttons, and disconnect devices, the overall structure of the disconnect, and residual current mutual inductance. It is composed of several parts such as a device. The grounding fault current of the protective equipment is between the leaking equipment that protects the leakage equipment, and when it exceeds the predetermined value, the main switch will automatically trip, and the fault current is cut off, which plays a protective role to a certain extent.

  在施工现场,通常来说用电标准都达不到要求,所投入使用的设施与线路存在很多的安全问题,主要特点就是由较强流动性、多次重复性、临时性。

At the construction site, generally speaking, the electricity standards are not up to the requirements, and the facilities and lines put into use have many safety problems. The main characteristics are strong fluidity, multiple repetitions, and temporary nature.

1施工现场漏电保护器误动作的原因

Causes of Misoperation of Leakage Protector on Construction Site

1) 外界干扰。External interference

a) 雷击时正逆交变过程引起的过电压,通过架空线路、绝缘电线、电缆和电气涉笔的对地电容,产生对地泄漏电流,使剩余电流保护器发生误动作,甚至直接损坏。过高时将造成保护器电源和内部电路的损害,带有失压脱扣器的自动开关脱扣线圈烧坏;过低时会引起失压脱扣线圈开关跳闸,合闸控制回路不能启动、带有机械闭锁装置的电磁开关因吸跳功率不足,使脱扣速度缓慢或拒动。

a) The overvoltage caused by the positive and negative alternating process during lightning strikes, through overhead lines, insulated wires, cables and the ground capacitance of the electrical pen, generates ground leakage current, causing the residual current protector to malfunction or even directly damage. If it is too high, it will cause damage to the protector power supply and internal circuit, and the automatic switch trip coil with the loss-of-voltage release will burn out; The electromagnetic switch with mechanical locking device has insufficient power to absorb and jump, which makes the tripping speed slow or refuses to move.

b) 铺设的各种线路与投入使用的用电设备在施工地进行照明的过程中出现了线路的乱搭乱建的情况,造成了线路的提前老化、线路与通电设施的绝缘电阻降低、电流泄漏甚至是出现接地的情况,造成了漏电保护设备多次出现状况影响正常的使用。因为漏电开关的输出终端的线路的绝缘电阻降低与接地线接零线的保护,在进行漏电保护装置安装过程中,电源的中性点没有接地。在出现触电情况的过程中降低了灵敏程度和拒动的现象。

b) In the process of lighting the construction site, the various lines laid and the electrical equipment put into use have been randomly built and constructed, which has caused the premature aging of the line, the reduction of the insulation resistance of the line and the energized facilities, and the current Leakage or even grounding has caused the leakage protection equipment to appear repeatedly and affect normal use. Because the insulation resistance of the line of the output terminal of the leakage switch is reduced and the grounding line is connected to the neutral line, the neutral point of the power supply is not grounded during the installation of the leakage protection device. In the process of electric shock, the sensitivity and refusal to move are reduced. 

c) 环境变化干扰,这里主要的使指环境条件,例如夏季温度升高,雨季温润潮湿;或者是漏电保护装置周围安装了带有强烈振幅的电气设施;或者是在运行的过程中 长期受有害气体的不断腐蚀与侵蚀;使得漏电保护设施的电子组件的电磁圈与组成结构等的绝缘程度下降、出现霉断与锈蚀的情况,使得漏电保护设施出现错误举动或者是拒动。

c) Environmental change interference. The most important factor here refers to environmental conditions, such as increased temperature in summer and warm and humid rainy season; or electrical facilities with strong amplitude installed around the leakage protection device; or long-term exposure during operation. The continuous corrosion and erosion of harmful gases; the insulation degree of the electromagnetic coil and composition structure of the electronic components of the leakage protection facility is reduced, mold breakage and rust appear, and eventually the leakage protection facility may act incorrectly or refuse to act.

2) 漏电保护器接线错误。漏电保护器安装时,往往因接线错误或安装方式与线路结构不适应因发误动作、拒动或达不到效果。中性线穿过漏电保护器后,同其他漏电保护器的中性线或与其他没有装设漏电保护器的中性线连在一起;中性线断线或接触不良,致使中点电位偏移零电位;这些增加了中性线漏电和引发其他故障的几率。

 The wiring of the leakage protector is wrong. When the leakage protector is installed, it is often caused by incorrect wiring or unsuitability of the installation method and circuit structure due to misoperation, refusal to move, or failure to achieve the best effect. After the neutral line passes through the leakage protector, it is connected with the neutral line of other leakage protectors or with other neutral lines that are not equipped with leakage protectors; the neutral line is broken or poorly connected, causing the neutral point to be biased. Shift the zero potential; these increase the probability of neutral line leakage and other failures.

3) 漏电保护器选型不合理。通过额定漏电的流经电流大于30mA或者大于通电设备标准电流2倍的保护漏电设备,或者是挑选有延时效果的保护漏电设备,因为额定漏电的流经电流不断提高或者是灵敏程度的降低,使得漏电事故在发生的同时,末端的漏电保护设备没有运行,上级的保护漏电设备就会开始动作。

 The selection of the leakage protector is unreasonable. Protect leakage devices with a rated leakage current greater than 30mA or more than twice the standard current of the energized device, or choose a protective leakage device with a delay effect, because the rated leakage current continues to increase or the sensitivity is reduced, When the leakage accident occurs, the leakage protection equipment at the end is not operating, and the higher-level leakage protection equipment will start to operate.

4) 漏电保护器本身的问题。 The problem of the leakage protector itself.

固有的局限性。 目前的漏电保护器,不论是电磁型还是电子型均采用磁感应互感器拾取用电设备主回路中的漏电流,三相或者三相四线在磁环中不可能布置完全均衡,在施工现场有较多的电焊机等双相或者单相负荷,三相电流也不可能完全平衡,甚至会相差很大,这个电动势大到一定程度就会导致漏电保护器跳闸。

a) Inherent limitations. The current leakage protectors, whether electromagnetic or electronic, use magnetic induction transformers to pick up the leakage current in the main circuit of electrical equipment. It is impossible to arrange three-phase or three-phase four-wire in the magnetic ring to be completely balanced. For more two-phase or single-phase loads such as electric welding machines, the three-phase currents cannot be completely balanced, and they may even differ greatly. If the electromotive force is too large to a certain extent, it will cause the leakage protector to trip.

a) 质量差、参数配置不当。施工现场并没有根据相关的施工规范要求以及施工计划方案来进行漏电保护设备的购入,并且因为购入的漏电保护器自身的质量低下,内部的实际情况与标准的参数标准不相符,刚投入使用的新产品就出现了误动作的情况。

b) Poor quality and improper parameter configuration. The construction site did not purchase leakage protection equipment in accordance with the relevant construction specifications and construction plans, and because the quality of the purchased leakage protector itself was low, the actual internal situation did not match the standard parameter standards, just put it into operation The new product used has malfunctioned.

2.施工现场科学使用漏电保护器的方法

Method of using leakage protector scientifically on construction site

在提升施工安全的管理问题的同时还要加强对施工电工人员的知识培训,所采取的预防方式要结合实际情况与施工技术来指定。

    While improving the management of construction safety, it is also necessary to strengthen the knowledge training of construction electricians, and the prevention methods adopted must be specified in accordance with the actual situation and construction technology.

1) 避免外界干扰。避免雷电过电压干扰引起误动作的措施除在架空线路上安装避雷器或击穿间隙,及在总配电箱处安装150mA,0.2s的延时型漏电断路器外,为了防止中性点位移过电压损坏或降低漏电断路器的灵敏度,还应调整负载,使之尽可能均匀地分布在三相线上,调换分支线相序,减小三相绝缘电阻不平衡电流,交换中性线,使导线截面积不小于各相线的导线截面。

1) Avoid external interference. The measures to avoid malfunction caused by lightning overvoltage interference include installing lightning arresters or breakdown gaps on overhead lines, and installing 150mA, 0.2s delay type leakage circuit breakers at the main distribution box, in order to prevent excessive neutral point displacement If the voltage is damaged or the sensitivity of the leakage circuit breaker is reduced, the load should be adjusted to distribute it on the three-phase line as evenly as possible. The cross-sectional area of the conductor shall not be less than the cross-section of the conductor of each phase line.

2) 正确选配安装接线  Select and install wiring correctly

a) 选配要与线路相适应。漏电开关的额定电压、额定电流、分断能力等性能指标应与线路条件相适应。电源干线保护用漏电保护器和终端设备用漏电保护器的耐受电压有所不同。电源干线和终端发生金属性接地故障时所产生的故障电流可相差几倍。

The selection must be compatible with the line. The performance indicators such as the rated voltage, rated current, and breaking capacity of the leakage switch should be compatible with the line conditions. The withstand voltage of the leakage protector for mains protection and the leakage protector for terminal equipment is different. When a metallic ground fault occurs in the mains of the power supply and the terminal, the fault current generated can be several times different.

b) 实行分级分区保护。把整个施工场地分布成不同的漏电保护设备区域,每一个保护区域之内都要有一套完整的二级漏电的保护设施,这样在一定程度之内能够提升整个保护区域的灵敏程度,并且还能减少保护漏电设置出现跳闸情况的几率,减少因故障出现停电的现象

 Implement hierarchical partition protection. The entire construction site is distributed into different leakage protection equipment areas according to majors and different adjacent construction teams. Each protection area must have a complete set of secondary leakage protection facilities, which can improve the entire The sensitivity of the protection area can also reduce the probability of tripping of the protection leakage setting, and reduce the phenomenon of power outage due to faults

c) 严格区分中性线和保护线。漏电保护器标有负荷侧和电源侧时,应按规定安装接线,不得反接。三级四线式或四极式漏电保护器的中性线应接入漏电保护器,经过漏电保护器的中性线不得作为保护线、不能重复接地或接设备外露可导电部分。负荷侧的中性线不得与其他回路共用。

Strictly distinguish between neutral line and protection line. When the leakage protector is marked with the load side and the power side, the wiring should be installed according to the regulations, and no reverse connection is allowed. The neutral line of the three-level four-wire or four-pole leakage protector should be connected to the leakage protector. The neutral line passing through the leakage protector shall not be used as a protection line, and it cannot be repeatedly grounded or connected to the exposed conductive parts of the equipment. The neutral line on the load side must not be shared with other circuits

3. 产品概述product description

常见的相与相间发生短路可以产生很大电流,可采用开关保护,而发生人体触电、线路老化而导致的电流泄露产生的火灾以及设备的接地故障都是由于漏电流所造成,漏电流一般都在30mA-3A,这些值很小,传统开关无法进行保护,所以要采用剩余电流动作保护装置。

The common phase-to-phase short circuit can generate a large current, which can be protected by a switch. However, the current leakage caused by human body electric shock and line aging and the ground fault of the equipment are caused by leakage current. The leakage current is generally At 30mA-3A, these values are so small that traditional switches cannot be protected, so a residual current-operated protection device must be used.

剩余电流继电器是由剩余电流互感器来检测剩余电流,并在规定条件下,当剩余电流达到或超过给定值时,使电器的一个或多个电气输出电路中的触点产生开闭动作的开关电器。

The residual current relay is a residual current transformer to detect the residual current, and under specified conditions, when the residual current reaches or exceeds a given value, one or more electrical output circuit contacts in the electrical appliance will open and close. Switch electrical appliances.

下面介绍三种常见的漏电情况。

Here are three common leakage situations.

1、 防直接接触电击要采用I△n≤30mA的高灵敏度的RCD。

High-sensitivity RCD with I△n≤30mA must be used to prevent direct contact and electric shock.

 

2、 防间接接触电击可采用I△n大于30mA的中灵敏度的RCD。

The medium sensitivity RCD with I△n greater than 30mA can be used to prevent indirect contact electric shock.

 

3、 防火RCD需采用4极或2极RCD。

A 4-pole or 2-pole RCD shall be used for fireproof RCD.

 

对于IT系统,按规定采用剩余电流继电器。为防止系统绝缘降低和作为二次故障后备保护,依据接线型式,采用类似 TT 或 TN 系统的保护措施。首先应采用绝缘监视装置,预测一次故障。

For the IT systems, residual current relays are used as required. In order to prevent the insulation of the system from degrading and as a secondary fault backup protection, according to the wiring type, a protective measure similar to the TT or TN system is adopted. First, an insulation monitoring device should be used to predict a failure.

 

对于TT系统,推荐采用剩余电流继电器。因为当发生单相接地故障时,故障电流很小,且较难估计,达不到开关的动作电流,外壳上将出现危险电压。此时N线要穿过剩余电流互感器。

For the TT system, a residual current relay is recommended. Because when a single-phase ground fault occurs, the fault current is very small and difficult to estimate. If the operating current of the switch is not reached, a dangerous voltage will appear on the housing. At this time, the N wire must pass through the residual current transformer.

 

对于TN-S系统,可采用剩余电流继电器。更快速灵敏切断故障,以提高安全可靠性,此时 PE 线不得穿过互感器,N 线要穿互感器,且不得重复接地。 

For the TN-S system, a residual current relay can be used. Cut off the fault more quickly and sensitively to improve safety and reliability. At this time, the PE line must not pass through the transformer, and the N line must pass through the transformer, and it must not be grounded repeatedly.

 

 

对于TN-C系统,不能采用剩余电流继电器。因为 PE 线和 N 线合一,若 PEN 线不重复接地,当外壳带电,互感器进出电流相等,ASJ拒动;若PEN线重复接地,部分单相电流将流入重复接地,达一定值后,ASJ 误动。 需将TN-C系统改造成TN-C-S系统,同TN-S系统,再将剩余电流互感器接入TN-S系统中。

For the TN-C systems, residual current relays cannot be used. Because the PE wire and the N wire are integrated, if the PEN wire is not repeatedly grounded, when the shell is energized, the current in and out of the transformer is equal, and the ASJ refuses to move; if the PEN wire is repeatedly grounded, part of the single-phase current will flow into the repeated grounding. After reaching a certain value, ASJ malfunctioned. It is necessary to transform the TN-C system into a TN-C-S system, which is the same as the TN-S system, and then connect the residual current transformer to the TN-S system.

4.产品简介 Product Introduction

BET365电气ASJ系列剩余电流继电器能够满足上述几种漏电情况的防护,与遥控跳闸开关联用,及时切断电源,防止间接接触、限制漏电电流。也可以直接作为信号继电器,监控电力设备。特别适用于学校、商厦、工厂车间、集贸市场、工矿企业、国家重点消防单位、智能大厦与小区,地铁、石油化工、电信及国防等部门用电的安全保护。

Acrel Electric's ASJ series residual current relay can meet the protection of the above-mentioned leakage conditions, and it can be used in conjunction with a remote trip switch to cut off the power supply in time to prevent indirect contact and limit the leakage current. It can also be directly used as a signal relay to monitor power equipment. It is especially suitable for the safety protection of electricity consumption in schools, commercial buildings, factory workshops, bazaars, industrial and mining enterprises, national key fire protection units, smart buildings and communities, subways, petrochemicals, telecommunications and national defense departments.

ASJ系列产品主要有两种安装方式,ASJ10系列为导轨安装,外形和功能如下表所示:

ASJ series products mainly have two installation methods. ASJ10 series are rail-mounted installations. The appearance and functions are shown in the following table:

 

ASJ20系列为面板安装,外形和功能如下表所示:

ASJ20 series are panel mounted, the appearance and functions are shown in the following table: 

 

其中AC型和A型剩余电流继电器的区别是:AC型剩余电流继电器是对突然施加或缓慢上升的剩余正弦交流电流能确保脱扣的剩余电流继电器,主要监测正弦交流信号。A型剩余电流继电器是对突然施加的或缓慢上升的剩余正弦交流电流和剩余脉动直流电流能确保脱扣的剩余电流继电器,主要监测正弦交流信号和脉冲直流信号。 

The difference between AC type and A type residual current relay is: AC type residual current relay is a residual current relay that can ensure the tripping of residual sinusoidal alternating current that is suddenly applied or slowly rising. It mainly monitors sinusoidal alternating current signals. Type A residual current relay is a residual current relay that can ensure the tripping of residual sinusoidal alternating current and residual pulsating direct current that is applied suddenly or slowly, and mainly monitors sinusoidal alternating current signals and pulsed direct current signals.

仪表具体的接线端子和典型接线如下所示:

The specific wiring terminals and typical wiring of the instrument are as follows:

 

5.结语  Conclusion

保护漏电的装置在对人体无意识地接触通电设备导致触电的体况下预防,能够有效地减少造成的伤害,对于因为电弧性的接地情况而导致的电气方面的火灾有很好的预防效果。ASJ系列剩余电流继电器产品能够监测线路中的漏电流,当漏电流达到或者超过设定值时,内部继电器动作,发出告警,并能与断路器开关联动,快速切断线路,保证线路安全。

The leakage protection device can prevent the human body from unconsciously contacting the energized equipment and causing electric shock, which can effectively reduce the damage caused, and has a good preventive effect on electrical fires caused by arc grounding. ASJ series residual current relay products can monitor the leakage current in the line. When the leakage current reaches or exceeds the set value, the internal relay will act to issue an alarm, and can be linked with the circuit breaker switch to quickly cut off the line to ensure line safety.

 

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